The browsers we choose
Now let’s talk about browsers. And what to say about them, you say, and so everything is clear – this is the program with which we look at Web pages. Well, that’s right, their main purpose is to view Web pages. But why are there so many browsers in the world? And why do they display pages in different ways?
Let’s remember. What is the basis of web pages? True, the HTML language, and it will be defined as ASCII text with the insertion of special markup codes (or tags). And when the browser displays the page, then it finds these codes and performs the corresponding actions (for example, meeting the <b> tag starts displaying the subsequent text in bold, and meeting </b> – stops doing this). A complete set of such tags is called a specification and is supported by a WWW consortium, which includes all the major companies developing software for the Internet (including Microsoft with Netscape). Ideally, all browsers should meet these specifications, but, unfortunately, real life and competition between leading browser manufacturers are making adjustments.
Let me remind you that initially HTML was positioned as a logical markup language for the text, independent of the output device. That is, the tags were perceived as an indication of the allocation of part of the text in some way. From here in the language there are many so-called logical tags like <strong>, <em>,:: unfortunately rarely used. The phrase “independent of the output device” means that the result of interpreting the HTML code can be displayed not only on the screen, but also, for example, on a sound card (when the computer itself reads the contents of the HTML page to you) or on a special device that reproduces page content with braille code. But it turned out that the HTML language, in the end, turned into a language for describing pages on a computer screen.
At the moment there are two browsers, the features of which should be taken into account by the web-designer when making pages. These are “Netscape Navigator” and “Microsoft Internet Explorer” (what if someone doesn’t know 🙂 In fact, there are much more browsers, but together they occupy only about 1% of the market and, as a rule, strive for compatibility with one of the two leaders. Between themselves, the leading browsers share the market in a ratio of approximately 75/25 (Internet Explorer is currently leading). So, in the future only these programs will be considered.
The first rule of professional web design
Why do we have to consider how our pages look in both browsers, if there is an HTML language standard, and all of them are required to properly view the code? And the fact of the matter is that they interpret the code differently (sometimes very differently), not only versions of different browsers, but also different versions of the same browser. The reason for this was the competition of companies when they introduced new tags to increase the competitiveness of their products. And as a result of any closed program, they differently understand the meaning of certain tags.
Hence, the first rule – a professional web-designer is simply obliged to know how his pages are viewed in all popular browsers and their various versions.
The second rule of professional web design
In addition, it is also necessary to take into account the fact that users have computers with different hardware configurations. I don’t mean that someone goes on the Web on a 286 machine (what if it’s true? :), but there are many quite modern computers that have low resolution. You don’t have to go far for examples – a laptop. A large number of them are available with a black and white screen, and color laptops are most often limited to a palette of 256 colors. Or, for example, palmtops (becoming popular handheld computers) running Windows CE – they were originally black and white.
So, we got to the second rule – a professional Web designer should look at pages with a different number of colors. And if necessary, make pages using only a safe palette.
The third rule of professional web design
All pages belong to one large unified network (WWW is called :), and this network contains completely different computers: IBM PC-compatible, Apple Macintosh, various versions of UNIX, Amiga,: Yes, and anything else. And all these platforms, so to speak, are slightly different when displaying graphics on the screen. It is unlikely that the font in Linux will be exactly the same as in Windows, and the default color palette may differ, and the dithering algorithm when displayed on the screen, and: In general, if the site is important and of interest to a wide range of users, be sure to test site on different platforms and under different operating systems. This was the third rule of a professional web designer 🙂
And don’t forget about text browsers, the most famous of which is Lynx. The site can be arbitrarily beautiful, but what good is it if they do not see it!